Aimy leads efforts in business development, strategic growth, and operations. As Paradigm’s Director of Strategy & Operations, she’s focused on growing our impact with existing clients while expanding our work to new industries, organizations, and geographic regions. Aimy developed operational expertise as a consultant at the Accenture Innovation Center in London and at Accenture Strategy, where she delivered strategic initiatives across multiple Global 500 and FTSE 100 companies. Aimy has spearheaded major business partnerships and implemented innovative programs in areas of enterprise technology, customer relationship management, and business policies. She has designed and led dozens of C-Suite workshops for major brands focused on human resource development, operational excellence, sustainability, and customer strategy.
Aimy is passionate about women’s rights and youth mentorship. She has led various inclusion-focused workplace initiatives, ranging from International Women’s Day events to local partnerships, and she spends her free time mentoring youth at organizations such as Publicolor and Young Enterprise. Aimy holds a master’s degree in Political Philosophy from King’s College London.
Alexandra brings years of risk management consulting and diversity and inclusion leadership experience to Paradigm. She is passionate about evolving organizational cultures, developing leaders, and empowering professionals to prioritize their well-being. At Paradigm Alexandra is a part of the Training & People Development team, helping clients plan, manage, and execute diversity, equity, and inclusion strategies and designing and facilitating workshops for individual contributors, managers, and executives.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Alexandra spent nine years at a global consulting firm where she partnered with Fortune 500 clients across various industries. She also organized leadership development programs and designed effective strategies and tools for advancing diversity and inclusion goals. Alexandra holds a B.S. from the University of Delaware’s Lerner College of Business and Economics.
Analia brings years of experience in curriculum design, facilitation, and growing innovative programs to her work with Paradigm clients. As a former educator, professor, and leader in New York City special-education spaces, Analia is passionate about incorporating intersectionality into disability-inclusion efforts. Drawing on her work in education reform, Analia cultivates diversity and inclusion through education about disability bias and advocating to remove environmental and social barriers for people with disabilities.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Analia was an Assistant Professor of Practice at Relay Graduate School of Education, where her teaching focused on bridging research, practical application, and sociocultural contexts. A Teach for America alum and a co-founder of KIPP Infinity Elementary School in Harlem, Analia remains committed to innovating education and volunteers as a Board Member for Irene Morgan Schools. Analia holds a bachelor’s degree in Communications from the University of Southern California and a master’s degree in Special Education from CUNY Lehman College.
Angela joined Paradigm with a passion for shaping inclusive and collaborative communities, creating impactful live experiences, and supporting leaders as they build the cultures that will execute their vision. She has experience in training and facilitation, co-creating diversity and inclusion strategies, and the implementation of global company-wide training initiatives and leadership development programs.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Angela worked with YSC Consulting, a Leadership Strategy firm where she helped to build and operationalize their Diversity & Inclusion practice. Her enthusiasm for driving change was cultivated while producing large scale social impact events (including Tina Brown’s annual Women in the World Summit) and theater productions in the artistic activism space, using storytelling to amplify underrepresented voices while partnering with human rights organizations to promote social change. Angela graduated from Rutgers University.
Ariel draws from more than a decade of experience in education, training, and curricular development around diversity and social equity to facilitate growth and transformation for clients. Ariel’s diverse professional background in NGOs, startups, political advocacy, and academia provides a global orientation for her work. Her professional experience spans the lifecycle of educational program development, including conducting initial assessments; developing curricula, courses, and trainings; providing instruction; and evaluating programmatic effectiveness.
Aya is passionate about partnering with companies to build more inclusive, equitable organizational cultures so that all employees are up for success and can thrive. At Paradigm, she has worked with clients across industries from small tech companies to large professional services firms, designing strategic plans for improving DEI efforts across the employee lifecycle.
As a qualitative researcher and mixed methods enthusiast, she loves to surface stories and themes by leveraging all kinds of data to investigate the key challenges and areas of opportunity for her clients — from individual interviews to survey and quantitative employee data, she is committed to unearthing relevant context and pinpointing the right strategy.
Prior to Paradigm, she honed her research skills at Research for Action, an education nonprofit that focuses on education reform initiatives for traditionally underserved students. Aya holds a master’s degree in Education, Culture and Society from the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, and a bachelor’s degree in French and Music from Stanford University.
Berry brings years of experience as a research-practitioner partnering with organizations to design and implement fair, objective, and inclusive talent management strategies. At Paradigm, she uses her expertise in translating research to practice to inform companies’ diversity and inclusion initiatives. Berry is an expert in psychometrics, from analyzing organizational data and systems to partnering with leaders and other stakeholders to initiate changes to talent measurement strategy and processes. Before joining Paradigm Berry was a Consultant at CEB (now Gartner), where she worked with organizations from a wide range of industries to address various employee assessment needs across the talent management lifecycle. These included defining talent requirements, designing legally defensible assessment solutions, and conducting talent reviews to inform workforce planning decisions and initiatives.
Berry holds an M.S. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from San Diego State University. She also completed intercultural competency studies at the University of Osnabrück in Germany and at an SDSU-extension in Athens, Greece. She has presented both academic and practitioner-oriented research at national meetings of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In addition to her work at Paradigm, Berry volunteers as a global communications lead at CULTURE LABx, a non-profit organization focused on cultivating conversations on organizational culture and the future of work.
Camille brings years of program coordination experience to supporting Paradigm’s sales team. In Camille’s previous roles at the U.S. Department of State and the World Bank Group, she developed expertise in balancing the hectic demands of scheduling, correspondence, travel, and event coordination. She understands the importance of maximizing team efficiency, and loves building, improving, and reimagining policies and procedures in order to ensure seamless business operations.
Camille is extremely passionate about combating gender bias, driving the economic development of disenfranchised communities throughout the world, and social justice. Camille graduated from Spelman College with a Bachelors of Arts in International Affairs with concentrations in Women’s Studies and Economics.
Carissa is one of Paradigm’s Co-Founders, focused on helping clients transform their diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives by using data to identify barriers and crafting tailored programs that will achieve measurable impact. Carissa has spearheaded Paradigm’s work with clients in a range of industries, including American Express, Etsy, Lyft, The New York Times, and Zillow Group.
Carissa is passionate about applying psychological research to solve real-world problems, and she is a leading expert in fixed and growth mindsets—people’s beliefs about the nature of talents and abilities. Before joining Paradigm, Carissa co-founded PERTS, Stanford University’s applied research center on mindsets, where she translated research into advice and tools to improve academic achievement across the country. At Paradigm, Carissa uses her expertise to transform companies’ diversity and inclusion initiatives.
Carissa’s work has been featured in dozens of media outlets, including The New York Times, Harvard Business Review, The Wall Street Journal, and Education Week. She has spoken at various conferences, including AtlanticLIVE, TechCrunch Disrupt, and Harvard Business School’s Gender and Work Symposium. Carissa is a member of Stanford University’s Mindset Scholars Network and was named to Forbes 30 Under 30 list in 2016 for her innovative work on growth mindset. Carissa holds a doctorate in Psychology from Stanford University.
Colleen is a passionate advocate for inclusion, committed to evidence-based policymaking across sectors. As a member of the training team, she designs and executes high-impact training programs, partnering with clients to implement initiatives that sustain learning and foster inclusion.
Before Paradigm, Colleen worked as a diversity and inclusion consultant at Mercer, a global human resources consulting firm. While there, she led research on women in the workplace, facilitated leadership workshops, and collaborated with organizations across industries, using data and storytelling to underpin culture change strategies.
Colleen holds a bachelor’s in international development from McGill University in Montreal, where she survived the cold by joining the school’s triathlon club. She has a master’s in public policy from Duke University, where she competed on the club triathlon team and worked as a research assistant for Policy Bridge, an initiative that aligns academics and policymakers. Colleen also served two years in rural Paraguay as a community economic development specialist in the U.S. Peace Corps.
Courri has committed his career to improving the lives of others through coaching, education, and leadership development. During the past 15 years, he has built, enhanced, and facilitated numerous learning experiences on university campuses and for global corporate leaders on topics ranging from cross-cultural engagement to strategic talent management. It is through these professional experiences Courri “lives” his personal mission: to create positive impact in the world through service and lifelong learning to give others the skills and confidence needed to do their best work.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Courri led the talent management and training functions for a regional non-profit organization. Courri holds a dual bachelor’s degree in Sociology and International Development Studies from UCLA, and a master’s in business from California State University, Chico.
Dani is passionate about supporting clients in thinking about how identity and power impact individuals and teams, and how organizations can thrive by tapping into their people.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Dani worked as a mental health counselor in the California Public School System and as a prisoner re-entry counselor at San Quentin State Prison, delivering public health programming designed to support marginalized communities in gaining access to information, resources, education, and power.
Dani also worked in leadership development as a coach, facilitator, program designer, adjunct professor, and consultant delivering content to hundreds of executives at non-profits, school districts, foundations, and private companies. She holds expertise in critical race theory, liberation frameworks, change management, and restorative practices. Dani is adept at creating and holding vulnerable group learning spaces that promote meaningful personal and professional transformations.
Dani holds a bachelor’s in Sociology with an emphasis on Social Change from the University of California, Berkeley. She also holds a master’s in Counseling Psychology from the University of San Francisco, where her research focused on the impacts of poverty on educational opportunity and achievement for children in the U.S.
Evelyn is a social psychologist who is passionate about using research to inform how we detect, discuss, and confront bias, with the ultimate goal of building more diverse, equitable, and inclusive communities. As the leader of Paradigm’s Training & People Development team, Evelyn translates academic research into understandable, actionable insights and programs for Paradigm’s clients and manages a team of expert consultants. She also personally advises organizations in a variety of industries, including entertainment, higher education, law, non-profit, and technology and has worked with companies such as The NFL, HitRecord, and Snap.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Evelyn specialized in using her research expertise to help organizations develop equitable and inclusive practices and products. At Paradigm, Evelyn leverages these skills to design and advance the approach behind many of Paradigm’s core training offerings. She specializes in working with executive teams, and leads a team of consultants with expertise in a variety of areas.
Evelyn’s work and insights have been published in academic journals and popular press outlets such as The Harvard Business Review, NPR, ESPN’s The Undefeated, The Atlantic, and Huffington Post. Evelyn’s research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, and in 2018, she was featured on the Indiana University College of Arts and Sciences “20 Under 40” list. As a testament to her belief in implementing structural change to foster diversity, equity, and inclusion, Evelyn is the co-founder of the National Science Foundation-funded Black Social and Personality Psychologists Retreat (BlaSPR).
Evelyn holds a doctorate from Indiana University, a master’s degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago, and a bachelor’s degree from Northwestern University.
As a Data Scientist at Paradigm, Jasmine integrates her analytical skills and background in organizational theory to identify patterns in data and provide evidence-based recommendations that further companies’ diversity and culture goals. Her passion for diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace stems from her experiences as an engineer and as an analyst in the financial services industry. At Paradigm, Jasmine combines this motivation with her research expertise, leveraging data analytics to understand and improve organizations’ unique systems, processes, and outcomes.
Jasmine holds a PhD in Organizational Behavior from the Olin Business School at Washington University in St. Louis. While at Olin, her research examined blame and credit in the workplace as well as leadership, team dynamics, and gender differences. Prior to earning her PhD, Jasmine worked at JPMorgan Chase & Co. as a business analyst. Jasmine has a bachelor’s degree in Industrial & Operations Engineering from the University of Michigan, where she served on the executive board of the university’s chapter of the Society of Women Engineers.
Joelle partners with leaders of some of the world’s most innovative companies to consult and advise on diversity and inclusion strategies. She has written extensively about diversity, inclusion, and unconscious bias, and her work has been featured in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, NPR, Harvard Business Review, Fortune, and on the cover of The Atlantic. In 2017 she was named to Recode’s list of the 100 most influential people in business, and to Marie Claire’s “New Guard” list of 50 women changing the world.
Before founding Paradigm Joelle was a women’s rights employment lawyer. As a Skadden Fellow at Equal Rights Advocates, she represented women in gender discrimination and sexual harassment litigation, and she advocated for local, state, and federal policies to ensure equal pay and other workplace protections for women. Joelle’s legal background highlighted the consequences that can result from companies failing to consider diversity and inclusion early, and inspired her to found Paradigm. Joelle is a graduate of Stanford Law School.
Jonea works to meet the needs of the future workforce through her passion for creating diverse, inclusive, and equitable workspaces. She believes that the best organizations are those that prioritize equity for every employee, as it allows authenticity and maximizes the spread of the ideas, perspectives, and fresh concepts needed to drive our communities forward. As part of Paradigm’s Organizational Strategy & Transformation team, Jonea works to break down DEI research into impact-focused initiatives for our clients.
Prior to Paradigm, Jonea worked as a consultant specializing in change management for large scale mergers, technology implementations, and general organizational change. Jonea is a Posse scholar and a graduate of Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. While on campus, she was heavily involved in extracurriculars that fostered her desire to create genuine relationships with those around her including the Admissions Student Diversity Board. She is currently pursuing a Masters in Professional Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from the University of Maryland.
As Paradigm’s Senior Director of Data Science and Research, Katherine uses her computational and statistical background to uncover patterns in organizational data and paint an evidence-based picture of companies’ demographic and cultural realities, as well as the main hurdles to achieving diversity goals. Katherine draws on conceptual and technical expertise to make data-driven strategic recommendations for changes to organizational systems and processes.
She developed this expertise at the Management of Organizations PhD program at UC Berkeley’s Haas School of Business, where she was trained as a computational sociologist. Katherine’s research at Haas focused on gender, labor market inequality, and entrepreneurship. Prior to Haas, Katherine worked as a Program Associate for the Center for WorkLife Law at UC Hastings where she worked to disseminate social science research on gender bias. Katherine has a master’s degree in Business Science from Haas.
Kristin is an organizational development practitioner who is dedicated to creating measurable impact by guiding individuals and groups to success. She brings years of experience in human resources and project management to Paradigm’s Training & People Development team. Using a collaborative approach to creating learning and talent strategies, Kristin helps companies develop and advance their diversity, equity, and inclusion goals and builds change management capability to ensure sustainable results.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Kristin led global initiatives related to leadership development, performance management, succession planning, and compensation design in the financial technology and consumer goods sectors. She has partnered with senior executives across the globe to identify and implement highly customized solutions to meet qualitative and quantitative goals.
Kristin holds a master’s degree in Social-Organizational Psychology from Columbia University Teachers College.
Megan is passionate about finding innovative ways to use data and interdisciplinary approaches to uplift structurally disadvantaged communities. As a Data Scientist at Paradigm, Megan uses her research and analytic skills to help companies identify evidence-based strategies to make their teams more effective and equitable. Previously, Megan worked at Mathematica Policy Research as a research assistant and statistical software programmer, where she performed analysis for large-scale longitudinal policy program evaluations.
Before joining Paradigm, Megan attended Princeton University where she worked toward a joint PhD in Sociology and Social Policy, with a certificate in African American Studies. Her research interests include social inequality/mobility, race discrimination, and belonging. At Princeton, Megan worked in the Graduate School’s Diversity and Inclusion office as a Diversity Fellow, served as the President of the Graduate Women of Color Caucus, organized a Race and Inequality Lecture Series, and taught Sociology of Inequality in East Jersey State Prison’s Education Program.
Myriah brings years of client coordination experience to supporting Paradigm’s Training & Implementation team. With her strong passion for client relationship management and capacity planning, Myriah manages the team’s schedules, training rollouts, and project timelines so that the team can deliver maximum impact to clients. In Myriah’s previous roles at Ameriprise Financial and Alliance Bernstein, she balanced the daily demands of current and prospective clients and managed the integration of three practices, as well as two practice acquisitions.
Myriah is extremely passionate about improving the economic and academic development of her local community. She graduated from California State University, San Bernardino with a dual Bachelors of Science degree in Business Administration and Accounting and Finance.
Natalie is a Paradigm Co-Founder and the Head of Services. Natalie’s team is dedicated to helping clients bring their diversity, equity, and inclusion strategies to life through high-impact trainings and long-term strategic partnerships. Natalie has led Paradigm’s work with dozens of clients across industries, including Airbnb, Box, Capital One, GE, IDEO, Intuit, and Stripe.
Before joining Paradigm, Natalie was a part of Google’s People Analytics team, developing and analyzing a wide range of diversity and inclusion initiatives. During her time at Google, Natalie received an impact award for her meaningful work with Gayglers—Google’s LGBT employee resource group.
Natalie is a leading expert in unconscious bias, from analyzing potential bias in companies’ recruiting, compensation, performance, and promotion processes to training executives to manage and mitigate bias. Natalie has led hundreds of unconscious bias workshops for tens of thousands of employees worldwide. Her work has been featured in a range of publications, including USA Today and The Huffington Post. Natalie holds a master’s degree in Organizational Psychology from Columbia University Teachers College.
Nicole leads Paradigm’s marketing efforts, helping the company extend its impact and amplifying awareness around important diversity and inclusion topics.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Nicole led communications for mission-driven healthcare and financial inclusion companies, and spearheaded global PR programs for Fortune 50 companies. Throughout her career, Nicole has had the opportunity to promote equality for women in business and the interests of underrepresented groups—she’s had the opportunity to work with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the NAACP, Fortune’s Most Powerful Women, the Clinton Global Initiative, and the World Economic Forum.
After more than a decade in the technology industry, Nicole is passionate about diversity and inclusion’s role in creating more companies, products, and ultimately a more equitable world. Outside of work, she volunteers for political and civic causes, and enjoys seeing as much of the world as possible.
Nicole holds a bachelor’s degree in Journalism from California State University, Chico.
Pin-ya develops and facilitates Paradigm’s high-impact trainings, drawing from years of experience in psychological research, teaching, and leadership development. She designs trainings and leads workshops that are tailored to clients’ needs and that promote learning, while fostering more diverse and inclusive organizations.
Before joining Paradigm, Pin-ya was an organizational consultant, where she conducted in-depth assessments of executive-level clients, focusing on behavioral strengths and opportunities, business challenges, and team dynamics. Pin-ya holds a master’s degree in Social Psychology from the Ohio State University, where she taught undergraduate courses in psychology and scientific writing. She has presented research at the Society of Personality and Social Psychology national conference, as well as at other academic forums.
Roni has a human-centered, strategy-based approach to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) work. She designs initiatives with a focus on creating learning opportunities and curating experiences that increase inclusive behaviors, attitudes, and practices. Roni’s passion for DEI is rooted in the belief that the work of inspiring individuals, transforming cultures, and empowering communities not only positively influences businesses, but also the world we live in. At Paradigm, Roni is on the Training team, where she designs and facilitates workshops and partners with clients to implement tailored DEI strategies.
Before joining Paradigm, Roni worked for an agriculture technology company where she held consulting, DEI, learning & development, and HR management roles. With a decade of human resources experience in both university and technology settings, Roni is able to help companies apply DEI methods throughout their business. Roni holds a bachelor’s in Communications from Santa Clara University.
Ryan brings years of consulting and business strategy development experience to Paradigm. He has worked with numerous Fortune 500 companies in different industries to leverage data analytics to inform organizational strategy and decision-making. At Paradigm, Ryan is a member of the Strategy & Insights practice, focused on helping clients transform their diversity, equity, and inclusion programs by using data to identify barriers and craft tailored programs that will achieve measurable impact.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Ryan worked for the global HR consulting firm Mercer, where he held consulting, strategy, and HR management roles. At Mercer, he partnered with executive leaders to develop and implement solutions around talent, culture, and business strategy issues. This included organizational redesign, change management, leadership communications, Employee Resource Group development, market analysis, and workforce compensation strategies.
Ryan served in the US Navy as a Sonar Technician and Intelligence Analyst, and he holds a M.S. in Organizational Leadership from Quinnipiac University.
Sebastian is passionate about bringing together distinct perspectives and experiences to guide his clients towards successful outcomes. His approach to client success is focused on long term impact and the development of genuine human connections.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Sebastian held account management and client success roles at companies including Amplitude, Prezi, and Opengov. His career has revolved around change management, technology adoption at scale, and relationship development.
Sebastian holds a joint master’s in Business with an emphasis on Global Entrepreneurship and Management from the University of IQS in Barcelona, Fu Jen University in Taipei, and the University of San Francisco.
Talia has experience in training and facilitation, leadership development, employee engagement and retention, and coaching. She thrives within the intersection of people and systems, and is passionate about cultivating environments of learning and inclusivity. As a consultant on the Training & People Development team, Talia executes high-impact training programs and supports clients’ diversity, equity, and inclusion strategies.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Talia spent almost a decade working at City Year, an educational non profit, where she led the design and execution of training, learning, and leadership development programs for tutors and mentors in NYC schools. She was also a Talent Management Consultant at Retensa, where she partnered with HR leaders to address their talent management issues. Talia holds a master’s degree in Social-Organizational Psychology from Teachers College at Columbia University, and a bachelor’s degree in psychology from Santa Clara University.
Tash weaves together industry experience, organizational psychology research, and a strong personal commitment to social justice to design workplace cultures that are inclusive and supportive of all employees. They lead our Paradigm Coaching practice, and have worked with companies including American Express, Buzzfeed, Hulu, Glossier, and StitchFix on global training programs.
Before joining Paradigm, they spent several years coaching executives to improve employee engagement and well-being, with an emphasis on working across cultures. Tash’s research examines the conditions that support workplace cultures of compassion and respect, as well as how employees from underrepresented groups experience these cultures.
Tash is passionate about bridging the divide between scientific research and practical application, and is skilled in utilizing creative methods to bring these disparate worlds into conversation with one another. Tash holds a PhD in Positive Organizational Psychology from Claremont Graduate University.
Tess has spent years managing experienced hire and executive recruiting initiatives in the professional services, technology, healthcare, and finance industries. Her talent acquisition experience spans startup, mid-sized, and Fortune 100 organizations throughout the U.S. She has specific expertise in designing recruitment strategies that reduce bias through evidence-based feedback models and inclusive assessment approaches.
Prior to joining Paradigm, Tess managed talent acquisition for Slalom San Francisco’s business consulting practice. She developed and implemented new recruitment strategies, led recruitment process redesigns, and designed and facilitated interviewer training. While at Slalom, Tess co-founded an affinity group focusing on diversity, inclusion, and belonging – a group that was launched globally across Slalom’s 27 markets – and co-led Slalom’s LGBTQ+ affinity group. Additionally, Tess has facilitated unconscious bias workshops and led forums on gender, race, and identity in the workplace.
Tiffany brings more than nine years of experience in leadership development, facilitation, and curriculum design. As a consultant on the Training & People Development team, she loves partnering with clients to build a holistically inclusive mindset of equity and access. Tiffany is passionate about connecting theories of socialization to our shared understanding of belonging: prior to Paradigm, she worked in the nonprofit sector to bring social change to communities in East Africa and higher education institutions in the United States.
Tiffany’s pedagogical curiosities intersect with wellness and popular culture (cultural studies and Black/hip-hop feminism). She approaches her work to raise social consciousness through embodied connections to personal narratives, believing these are the moments for learning and transformative change. Tiffany has a bachelor’s degree in Communication from DePauw University and a master’s degree in Cultural Foundations of Education with a Certificate of Advanced Study in Women’s and Gender Studies from Syracuse University. In addition to her work at Paradigm, Tiffany is a 200hr-certified yoga teacher and transformational life coach with a vision to bring wellness practices to intergenerational communities of color.
Trudy manages Paradigm REACH, our eLearning platform that enables organizations to deliver engaging, relevant, and impactful diversity, equity, and inclusion training to their employees.
Before joining Paradigm, Trudy was a Learning Design Manager at Cengage, where she led a team responsible for achieving successful learner outcomes through strong instructional design based on learning science and strategic customer research. Before that, Trudy built up a wealth of expertise as a Content Development Manager and Managing Editor, supporting key revenue-driving products by maintaining roadmaps and schedules, orchestrating the work of subject matter experts, and refining processes and workflows to bring the highest level of quality to the creation of educational content.
After two decades in the publishing and educational technology industries, Trudy is passionate about lifelong learning and how it can be leveraged to improve people’s lives and to create a more equitable world.
Trudy holds a bachelor’s degree in English from the University of California, Los Angeles, and a master’s degree in Publishing Studies from the University of Stirling, Scotland.